*Terminal values: - refers to desiderable end-states of existences.
- Goals that a person would like to achieve during his
or her lifetime.
*Instrumental values: refers to preferable modes of behaviour, or menas of achieving the terminal values.
12. Compare and contrast Hofstede´s and globe´s national culture frameworks
Hofstede´s framework for assessing cultures
· Power distance
· Individualism vs. collectivism
· Masculinity vs. Feminity
· Uncertanty avoidence
· Long-term vs. Short-term orientation
Globe framework for assesing cultures
· Future orientation
· Gender differentation
· Uncertainty avoidance
· Power distance
· In group collectivism
· Performance orientation
· Humane orientation
13. What criteria are used by people when attributing a behavior to either external or internal causes? Describe these three criteria
* Suggest that when we observe an individuals behaviour, we attempt to determine wether it was internally or externally caused.
1- Internally: believed to be under the personal control of the individual
2- Externally: resulting from outside causes
· DISTINTIVENESS: Wheter an individual displays different behaviours in different situations.
· CONSENSUS: if everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way
· CONSISTENCY:does the person respond the same way over time
14. People often use shortcuts such as projection and stereotyping to judge other people more quickly. What are the good and bad aspects of this type of perceptual “fast track”?
Shortcuts used in judging others
- Selective perception
- Halo effects
- Contrast effects
15º How does perception affect the decision-making process?
Link between Perception and Decision-Making:
- Decision making occurs as reaction to a problem
- Perception influences:
*awareness that a problem exists
*the interpretation and evaluation of information
*Bias of analysis and conclusions