Presente perfecto past simple

Enviado por Programa Chuletas y clasificado en Inglés

Escrito el en español con un tamaño de 66,56 KB

 

                                                                                             STARTER UNIT


PRESENT SIMPLE vs PRESENT CONTINUOUS

• Structure differences


Present Simple

- Maria plays tennis at the weekends
- She doesn’t study French.
- How many children do they have?

Remember:
- In positive we use two conjugations. One is the simple form and the other is the “s” form (play/plays)
- In negative sentences we use the auxiliaries don’t and doesn’t and the verb is ALWAYS in the simple form. (She doesn’t work)
- In the question form we use auxiliaries do and does and also the verb goes in the simple form. The subject goes in between the auxiliary and the verb. (Do you work here?)


Present continuous

- Maria is playing tennis.
- She isn’t studying.
- What are they doing?

Remember:
- When we construct the present continuous we use the verb to be. Therefore we DO NOT USE auxiliaries do, does, don’t or doesn’t.
- Use the “ing” form after the verb to be.

• Uses comparison


Present Simple Present Continuous

Routines / Habits : Maria smokes Actions happening NOW: Maria is smoking
Permanent Actions: Pedro lives in Sevilla Temporary actions: Juan is staying at the Marriot hotel.
Current facts/truths: I have two brothers

SUBJECT AND OBJECT QUESTIONS

If the question word (who, what, which, whose, how...) is the subject or part of the subject, we do not use do, does or did. 

Who (subject) saw Bob (object)?

Jim (subject) saw Bob (object)

What (subject) happened?

Nothing (subject) happened 

If the question word is the object, we need do, does or did if there is no auxiliary verb. 

Who (object) did Jim (subject) see?

Jim (subject) saw Bob (object)

How many cakes (object) did you (subject) eat?

I (subject) ate 10 cakes (object) 

PREPOSITIONS

If the question word is the object of the preposition, we usually put the preposition at the end. 

Who did you eat with? (FORMAL: With whom did you eat?)

I ate with Jim.

Where did you get that hat from? (FORMAL: From where did you get that hat?)

I got it from the shop down the road. 

Question Words

We use question words to ask certain types of questions (question word questions). We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example why, how).

Question Word Function Example

What asking for information about something What is your name?

Asking for repetition or confirmation What? I can't hear you.

You did what?

What...for asking for a reason, asking why What did you do that for?

When asking about time When did he leave?

Where asking in or at what place or position Where do they live?

Which asking about choice Which colour do you want?

Who asking what or which person or people (subject) Who opened the door?

Whom asking what or which person or people (object) Whom did you see?

Whose asking about ownership Whose are these keys?

Whose turn is it?

Why asking for reason, asking what...for Why do you say that?

Why don't making a suggestion Why don't I help you?

How asking about manner How does this work?

Asking about condition or quality How was your exam?

How + adj/adv asking about extent or degree see examples below

How far distance How far is Pattaya from Bangkok?

How long length (time or space) How long will it take?

How many quantity (countable) How many cars are there?

How much quantity (uncountable) How much money do you have?

How old age How old are you?

How come (informal) asking for reason, asking why How come I can't see her?

PAST SIMPLE


PASADO SIMPLE


Debemos distinguir dos grupos de verbos:

1) VERBO AUXILIAR: TO BE (ser, e star) (conjugarlo en pasado)

2) VERBOS NO AUXILIARES: se dividen en:

1. VERBOS REGULARES: son los que forman el pasado añadiendo –ED al verbo. Estos verbos también forman su participio de pasado añadiendo –ED.

EX.: Jane played tennis yesterday / I studied the last exam.

2. VERBOS IRREGULARES: son los que debemos estudiar por la tabla de verbos irregulares.

Ex: begin began begun

VERBOS NO AUXILIARES

FOMA AFIRMATIVA

Todos los verbos no auxiliares, tanto los regulares como los irregulares, tienen una misma forma para todas las personas, inc luída la 3ª pers. del singular.

Los verbos regulares forman el pasado y el participio de pasado con -ed.

Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado y el participio de pasado según la tabla.

FORMA NEGATIVA

Todos los verbos no auxiliares, tanto los regulares como los irregulares, toman la partícula auxiliar de pasado DID NO / DIDN’T. Esta partícula se usa para

TODAS las personas.

Si estamos reallizando una oración negativa con un verbo REGULAR en pasado, se pone la partícula de pasado DID NOT /DIDN’T, y el verbo vuelve a su

forma de infinitivo sin TO, es decir, sin la terminación -ED.

Si en la oración tenemos un verbo irregular, al poner la partícula DID NOT / DIDN’T , el verbo vuelve a sus forma de infinito sin ‘to’ (1ª columna de la

tabla).

ESQUEMA

SUBJECT+DID NOT/ DIDN’T+VERBO(en infinit. Sin ‘to’)+COMPLEMENTS

EX. : - He didn’t/did not run in that race.

-You didn’t /did not play tennis last year

-They didn’t / did not begin the work.

FORMA INTERROGATIVA 

Todos los verbos no auxiliares, tanto los regulares como los irregulares, toman la partícula axiliar de pasado DID. Esta partícula se utiliza con TODAS las

personas.

Si estamos realizando una oración interrogativa con un verbo regular en pasado, se pone la partícula de pasado DID y el verbo vuelve a su forma d e

infinitivo sin ‘to’ , es decir pierde la terminación –ED.

Si la oración interrogativa tiene un verbo irregular al poner la partícula DID , el verbo vuelve a infinitivo sin ‘to’ (1ª columna de la tabla)

ESQUEMA 

DID + SUBJECT + VERB(en infinit. Sin ‘to’) + COMPLEMENTS?

EX.: -Did you play tennis last year?
-Did they begin the work?
-Did he run in that race?


SHORT ANSWERS WITH SIMPLE PAST

FORMA AFIRMATIVA FORMA NEGATIVA

YES, SUBJECT(pron.pers)+ DID NO, SUBJECT(pron.pers)+ DIDN’T

EX.: Did Jim arrive last Monday? Yes, he did No, he didn t

Did your sister know Mary Yes, she did. No she didn t

Usos del PASADO SIMPLE.

1. Se usa cuando hablamos de un tiempo definido en el pasado. 

Ex.: Last night I went to a concert.

I saw Mary three years ago.

2. Para describir un habito en el pasado.

Ex.: When I was at school, I got up every day ar 7 o clock.

3. Para una serie de acontecimientos que tienen lugar uno detras de otro en el pasado.

Ex.: The thief went into the bank, pulled out a gun and pointed it at the cashier.

UNIT 1

Used to 

Used to do

We use 'used to' for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens.

• I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped two years ago.

• Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesn't.

• I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.

We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.

• There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn't.

• She used to have really long hair but she's had it all cut off.

• I didn't use to like him but now I do.

'Used to do' is different from 'to be used to doing' and 'to get used to doing'

to be used to doing

We use 'to be used to doing' to say that something is normal, not unusual.

• I'm used to living on my own. I've done it for quite a long time.

• Hans has lived in England for over a year so he is used to driving on the left now.

• They've always lived in hot countries so they aren't used to the cold weather here.

to get used to doing

We use 'to get used to doing' to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us.

• I didn't understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it.

• She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day.

• I have always lived in the country but now I'm beginning to get used to living in the city.

 


USE TO


Se usa used to + verbo para hablar de habitos ya pasados y para hablar de estados pasados.

Ejemplos:

Hábito: I used to play the guitar. Significa que antes tocabas la guitarra pero ya no.

Estado: I used to live in London. Significa que antes vivias en Londres pero ya no.

Se forma: se usa la misma forma con todas las personas

Afirmativos:

I
you
he/she/it + used to + verbo
we
they

Ejemplo: I used to play football, he used to play football, we used to play football etc...

Negativos:

I
you
he/she/it + didn't use to + verbo
we
they

Ejemplo: I didn't use to play football, he didn't use to play football, we didn't use to play football etc...

Preguntas:

Did + use to + verbo
ejemplo: Did you use to smoke? (¿Solias fumar?)
What did you use to do....? (Que solias hacer...?)

Ejemplo: Did you use to play football? Did he use to play football?......

Respuestas cortas:

Did you use to play football? (¿Solias jugar al futbol?)
Yes I did
No I didn't

PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

Form

2nd column of irregular verbs

Example:

I spoke had + 3rd column of irregular verbs

Example:

I had spoken

Regular verbs: infinitive + ed

Example:

I worked regular verbs: form of have + infinitive + ed

Example:

I had worked

Exceptions

Exceptions when adding ed:

 when the final letter is e, only add d 

Example:

love - loved

 after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled 

Example:

admit - admitted

 final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) 

Example:

travel - travelled

 after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel) 

Example:

worry - worried

but: play - played

See also explanations on Simple Past and Past Perfect Simple

Use

We use Simple Past if we give past events in the order in which they occured. However, when we look back from a certain time in the past to tell what had

happened before, we use Past Perfect.

Normal order in the past or looking back to an event before a certain time in the past?

Do you just want to tell what happened some time in the past or do you want to tell what had happened before/up to a certain time in the past?

Some time in the past

Example:

Jane got up at seven. She opened her birthday presents and then the whole family went to the zoo. before/up to a certain time in the past

Example:

Before her sixth birthday, Jane had never been to the zoo.

Signal Words

 first

 then  already

 up to then

 before that day

 after*

*Note: "After" is only used as a signal word for Past Perfect if it is followed by a subject + verb, meaning that one action had been completed before

another action began (the new action is in Simple Past).

Example:

After the family had had breakfast, they went to the zoo. 

However, if "after" is followed by object + subject + verb, the verb belongs to the new action and is therefore in Simple Past.

Example:

After her visit to the zoo, Jane was exhausted.

More exceptions with signal words

When

Depending on the situation, "when" can be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. Compare the following examples:

Example:

When Jane saw the elephants, she was amazed. (at the same time)

When Jane had seen the elephants, she wanted to see the giraffes. (second action happened after the first action had been completed)

When Jane went to see the elephants, she had already seen the lions. (second action had been completed when the first action took place)

Before

"Before" as well can either be used with Simple Past or Past Perfect. If the action after "before" is a new action, use Simple Past. If the action after "before"

started (and was not completed) before a certain time in the past, use Past Perfect. Compare the following examples:

Example:

Jane had read a lot about elephants before she went to the zoo.

Jane went to the zoo before she had finished reading her new book about elephants.


PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS

Gramática 

1.- Past simple 

El "past simple" describe una acción pasada ya finalizada. 

When I was young I lived in Madrid (ahora vivo en Barcelona) 

2.- Past continuous 

Indica que una acción se estaba desarrollando en cierto momento del pasado al cual se hace referencia. No dice si la acción ya finalizó o todavía

continuaba. 

When the mother came home her husband was playing with the kids (no sabemos si terminó de jugar en ese momento o continuó jugando) 

A veces se describen dos acciones simultáneas que tuvieron lugar en el pasado. En dicho caso, se utiliza el "past imple" para describir aquella que finalizó y

el "past continuous" para aquella otra que estaba ocurriendo cuando la primera tuvo lugar. 

Yesterday evening when you called me I was having a shower

When the parents arrived home the children were watching TV 

Otra diferencia entre ambos tiempos es que el "past continuous" se utiliza a veces para indicar que la acción es más casual, menos planificada. 

Yesterday morning, from 8 to 10, I was running (algo rutinario, que suelo hacer con frecuencia, por lo que no lo resalto)

Yesterday morning, from 8 to 10, I ran (algo diferente, un tanto extraordinario, por lo que quiero destacarlo) 


PAST PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE

Gramática 

Ambos tiempos describen acciones finalizadas en el pasado, si bien con algunas diferencias.

a) Past Simple

Acción finalizada en el pasado; no se hace referencia a ninguna conexión con el presente.

I studied law at the university of Madrid 

b) Past Perfect

Equivale al "present perfect" pero tomando como punto de referencia un momento en el pasado. 

- La acción finalizó cerca de dicho momento pasado que es mencionado en la oración.

Did you see him when you went to his office? No, he had left

- La acción finalizó justo en dicho momento pasado o incluso continuó después.

He had lived in Paris for 10 years when he decided to buy his own flat (continuó viviendo en París

PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS

Form

Simple Past Past Progressive

irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs

I spoke

regular verbs: verb + ed

I worked past form of 'be' + ing form of verb


 

I was speaking

you were speaking

he / she / it was speaking

we were speaking

they were speaking

Exceptions

Exceptions when adding 'ed' : 

 when the final letter is e, only add d. 

Example: love - loved

 after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled 

Example: admit - admitted

 final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) 

Example: travel - travelled

 after a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not after a vowel) 

Example: worry - he worried

but: play - he played Exceptions when adding 'ing' : 

 silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee) 

Example: come - coming

but: agree - agreeing

 after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled 

Example: sit - sitting

 final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) 

Example: travel - travelling

 final ie becomes y. 

Example: lie - lying

See also explanations on Simple Past and Past Progressive

Use

After another or at the same time?

Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time?

Simple Past Past Progressive

after another 

She came home, switched on the computer and checked her e-mails. at the same time 

Simon was playing on the computer while his brother was watching TV.

New action or already in progress?

If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress.

Simple Past Past Progressive

new action 

My mobile rang (when I was sitting in a meeting.) action already in progress 

While I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile suddenly rang.)

Only mentioning or emphasising progress?

Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time?

Simple Past Past Progressive

just mentioning

Colin played football yesterday. emphasising progress

Yesterday at six o'clock, Colin was playing football.

Certain Verbs

The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Past (not in the progressive form).

 state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit 

Example: We were on holiday.

 possession: belong, have 

Example: Sam had a cat.

 senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch 

Example: He felt the cold.

 feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish 

Example: Jane loved pizza.

 brain work: believe, know, think, understand 

Example: I did not understand him.

introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say 

Example: “I am watching TV,“ he said.

Signal words

Simple Past Past Progressive

first *WHEN

then *WHILE

If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, *AS LONG AS


 


 

PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS

Gramática 

1.- Past simple 

El "past simple" describe una acción pasada ya finalizada. 

When I was young I lived in Madrid (ahora vivo en Barcelona) 

2.- Past continuous 

Indica que una acción se estaba desarrollando en cierto momento del pasado al cual se hace referencia. No dice si la acción ya finalizó o todavía

continuaba. 

When the mother came home her husband was playing with the kids (no sabemos si terminó

de jugar en ese momento o continuó jugando) 

A veces se describen dos acciones simultáneas que tuvieron lugar en el pasado. En dicho caso, se utiliza el "past imple" para describir aquella que finalizó y el "past continuous" para aquella otra que

estaba ocurriendo cuando la primera tuvo lugar. 

Yesterday evening when you called me I was having a shower

When the parents arrived home the children were watching TV 

Otra diferencia entre ambos tiempos es que el "past continuous" se utiliza a veces para indicar que la acción es más casual, menos planificada. 

Yesterday morning, from 8 to 10, I was running (algo rutinario, que suelo hacer con frecuencia, por lo que no lo resalto)Yesterday morning, from 8 to 10, I ran (algo diferente, un tanto extraordinario, por lo que quiero destacarlo)